Satellite Topographic Mapping: A Key Space Technology for Sustainable Water Resources Monitoring and Management
This paper presents advanced space satellite earth observation technologies that can be used to monitor and manage the water resources and its environment for sustainable development. The aim is to present satellite earth observation topographic mapping tools and to present cases where satellite earth observation techniques have been used for water management. Several papers were reviewed to identify tools and technologies that are capable for topographic mapping. From the literature, modern satellite instruments and sensors such as Radiometric Aperture Radar (RADAR) can penetrate into the ground and can be capable for water resources management. The technologies such as Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote sensing digital image processing have been identified to be the sustainable techniques to process and analyze the satellite water data. There is a claim that satellite earth observation data products are underused in water resources management  but this data can be a tool for sustainable monitoring, managing water resources for conservation and planning purposes. Earth observation satellite topographic mapping techniques can provide precise hydrological, water sources, possible water pollutants and elevation information for sustainable monitoring, management, planning of the resources as well as forecasting and for early warning purposes. A case study of the flood risk map of Palapye, in the Central District of Botswana was produced and presented using a 30m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM), an earth observation topographic data. A GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was used to process and analyze the data and the results are presented in maps for visualization.
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Modern Environmental Science and Engineering
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